|English House (Left) vs. French House (Right)|
|A vaulted cellar|
WHAT FRENCH HOUSES LOOK LIKE: They have slanted tin roofs, and use rock from the St. Lawrence River, some of which were porous so the outside was coated with stucco or tin sometimes to keep the rain and snow out. Walls of houses were also shared with other houses, and french houses were built to open onto sidewalks.
WHAT BRITISH HOUSES LOOK LIKE - They have flat roofs and they're built from rectangular bricks, so they're more linear. Flat roofs were more likely to cave in from heavy snowfall than the french pitched roofs.
"WE BUILT THIS CITY" - HOW IT ALL CAME TOGETHER - After 1664, workers were trained in the classical tradition (but had little experience) and were likely familiar with a treatise on stonecutting, carpentering or woodworking. Stonemasons supervised construction, passing on their instructions to carpenters, woodworkers and roofers. Apprentice masons, masons, master masons and stonecutters, became by default the first "architects" in New France. (source: ww.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca)
|A vaulted cellar in an art gallery|
A GREAT CITY FIRE CHANGED THINGS - After major fires in Québec City (1682) and Montréal (1721) the use of wainscotting and other flammable wooden embellishments were prohibited.
BUILDING GUIDELINES IN 1727
In 1727 Old Quebec City dwellings had to be of stone, erected on vaulted cellars; fireplaces and chimneys were to be set in outside walls; chimney stacks had to be installed in a single, solid wall of masonry, to facilitate access; gabled walls and right-angled interior walls had to emerge on the roof, to serve as firebreaks; garreted roofs with occupied wooden stories were banned, to be replaced by unoccupied attics sloping on both sides; the heavy "great roof beams" gave way to lighter beams or trusses that could be dismantled quickly. All woodwork — casings, porches, stairway turrets — was forbidden on outside walls. (Courtesy of thecanadianencyclopedia.ca).
FUN FACT - 2 DIFFERENT BRICK COLORS - Orange bricks were imported from Scotland and Yellow bricks were imported from Ireland. Both were seen in houses throughout the city.
NEXT: The Kent House, THEN: Ursline Nuns and their Tiny House